Urad (Binomial name is Vigna mungo), also referred to as urad dal, udad dal, urd bean, urd, urid, black matpe bean, black gram, black lentil (much smaller true black lentil (Lens culinaris), maas (in Nepali), đậu đen (Vietnamese, literally: black bean) or white lentil (Vigna mungo), is a bean grown in southern Asia. It is largely used to make dal from the whole or split, dehusked seeds. Black gram originated in India where it has been in cultivation from ancient times and is one of the most highly prized pulses of India. It has also been introduced to other tropical areas mainly by Indian immigrants.
Urad or Black Gram (Matpe) is widely grown in India, Myanmar , South-East Asia , Iran, Greece and East Africa as their tropical climates and soil type the pulse’s cultivation. The largest of this pulse is India followed by Myanmar and Thailand.
India is the largest produer of urad but It dos not take to a comfortable situation. As It is also the largest consumer of urad in the world and its total production is not able to fulfill its domestic demand. The incapability of India production to satisfy its demand makes it the largest importer of this pulses as well. The major consuming cum importing countries of urad are India,China,Pakistan,Japan and Thailand. Urad is mainly used for sprouting, making soups, pastes, cakes and curries. And it is also used in many other dishs in india as well as other countries.It is very nutritious and is recommended for diabetics, as are other pulses.
Urad is the largest exported pulse crop among the total beans and pulses. The total export of urad in the world contributing to a 40% share in the total quantity of the beans and pulses. The major exporting countries are Myanmar,Thailand and Australia.
In Myanmar, Urad is gown during winter seasons (starting October), and it is harvested from March to April. Producing States and Divisions are Kachin, Kayar, Sagaing, Tananthayi, Pegu ( East and West), Mandalay, Mon, Shan (East, South, and North), and Irrawaddy. Myanmar annually produces around 500,000 tonnes.
In Myanmar, about 85% of the total production of Urad is exported to India, China, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Japan, Philippines, UAE; etc, by oversea or Border trade. Myanmar exported about 5 lk tonnes in 2006-07, over 530000 tonnes in 2007-08, over 530000 tonnes in 2008-09, about 620000 tonnes in 2009-10 and about 330000 tonnes in 2010-11 (up to November).